PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER LONGUM LINN. FRUITS

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Priyanka Sharma

Abstract

Introduction: Piper longum Linn, belonging to the family Piperaceae, is a climber, perennial shrub which is commonly found in India.  The dried fruits of Piper longum are widely used in Ayurvedic System of medicines since time unknown. It posses significant pharmacological properties due to presence of variety of chemical constituents in it. Objective: The present study is aimed to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physiochemical and phytochemical parameters for Piper longum fruits, as per the WHO guidelines for herbal drug standardization. Materials and Methods: WHO emphasized the use of standardized herbs and formulations for safety and best therapeutic results. Results and Discussion: Pharmacognostical studies shows that the fruits of Piper longum are found as green when fresh which turns grayish black upon drying. It posses pungent, bitter and acrid taste. The fruits are cylindrical with small petiole. The powder microscopy shows the presence of brown content, oleo resins, stone cells and calcium oxalate crystals. Physiochemical analysis shows variable extractive values in different solvents with maximum extractives of 20.6±0.021% in water and minimum extractive value of 6.6±0.036% in chloroform. Total Ash value of 8.3±0.015%, Acid Insoluble Ash- 1.16±0.025% and Water Soluble Ash- 5.5±0.01%, Foreign Matter- 1.62±0.12%, Moisture content of 15.70±0.051%, Bitterness value-1.96, Swelling Index-1.5±0.01 and Foaming Index- 102.33. Phytochemical analysis of the fruits of Piper longum shows the presence of alkaloids, volatile oil, tannins, fixed oils, and phenolics. Conclusion: The botanical, physical and chemical parameters obtained in this study can be used for establishing the identity and purity of the drug that will lead to safety and efficacy of the herb.

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Research