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BACKGROUND: Burn wounds are inescapable life events especially in low income areas. Contamination of the burn wound site results in localized wound infection, hence the need for potent phytochemicals readily available for wound healing. The use of stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis efficacy for burn wound has not been evaluated to the best of our knowledge.
AIM: The study is aimed at evaluating and comparing the wound healing potential of ointment base of leaves and Stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis on burn wounds created on wistar albino rats.
METHODS: The leaves and Stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis collected were extracted using 95%v/v methanol and phytochemical analysis conducted. Simple ointments of varying concentrations were formulated to screen for wound healing activity using the burn wound model on experimental rats grouped into six (n=4). Group 1 was treated with silver sulfadiazine cream (positive control), group 2 with ointment base (negative control), group 3 with 1% stem bark extract ointment, group 4 with 2% stem bark ointment, group 5 with 1% leave extract ointment, and group 6 with 2% leave extract ointment. All animals were anesthetized before the creation of burn wounds. Measurement was taken on day zero and the wound was left untreated for 48 hours in order to allow bacterial colonization before daily treatment of the wound for 16 days.
RESULTS: The result of the phytochemical screening revealed that both extract of Anthocleista djalonensis contains flavonoids, tannins and saponins. On day 2, 1% stem bark, 2% stem bark and 1% leaf extract had 16%, 15%, and 10% wound contraction respectively which was higher than the 8.5% wound contraction of silver sulfadiazine. Also as the concentration of the extract increased, the wound healing effect also increased as seen by the percentage wound contraction on day 16 for all treatment.
CONCLUSION: The findings of the study have shown that methanolic extracts of stem bark and leaf of Anthocleista djalonensis contained bioactive constituents which have burn wound healing activity. The stem bark extract showed better activity when compared with the leaf extract and also the positive control (silver sulfadiazine).